As suggested, here's a separate thread for Scotland. I was born in England but moved to Scotland when I was about a week old. It's where all my family come from, although we are now spread out throughout the UK and world.
Capital city: Edinburgh
Largest city: Glasgow
Flag: The St. Andrews cross
Patron saint: St. Andrew (St. Andrew's day = 30th November) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Andrew%27s_Day
We are very proud of our history and culture. One of the best ways to insult a Scot is to say s/he is English or refer to Scotland as part of England. In football, we will generally support any team playing against England. The English don't understand this (and it's not true of all Scots) but it is a wonderful way to wind them up. I, for one, will be rooting for Switzerland at the World Cup in South Africa. We have our own parliament which can legislate over certain issues such as education but generally we are ruled by the British government which is based in London.
A few famous Scots:
John Logie Baird (inventor of the television)
James Barrie (creator of Peter Pan)
Alexander Graham Bell (inventor of the telephone)
Robert Burns (author and poet, writer of Auld Lang Syne, Burns' Night celebrated on January 25th http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burns_supper)
Arthur Conan Doyle (author of the Sherlock Holmes books)
Alex Ferguson (legendary trainer of Manchester United)
Robert Louis Stevenson (author of Treasure Island)
And the groups Franz Ferdinand, Travis, Biffy Clyro, The Fratellis, Garbage, Glasvegas to name just a few.
Other "typically Scottish" things:
Kilts http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kilt - yes, both my dad and brother have kilts
My surname is "Stewart" so we have some of the most famous tartans. Each "clan" (family) has their own tartan and some clans have more than one. These are the Stewart tartans: http://www.scotclans.com/scottish_clans/clan_stewart/tartan.html
Scottish country dancing http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottish_country_dance
Nessie i.e. The Loch Ness Monster http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loch_Ness_Monster
And by the way, this myth that Scots are mean with money is NOT true. We are just careful and don't go throwing it around.